Systemic Cognition Symposium 2017, Kingston

DART members will be presenting at the Systemic Cognition Symposium 2017, Kingston on Tuesday, July 25th 2017 from 9:00am

WHEN

Tuesday 25th July, 2017

WHERE

Kingston University, Kingston Hill Campus London

Dr Amélie Gourdon–Kanhukamwe will be presenting at 10:00am

NUDGES IN THE OPEN

Abstract:

An increasing number of research papers have proposed, theoretically and/or with the support of empirical evidence, that social issues can be addressed through so-called nudges. In public policy circles, practice has moved towards the use of nudges on a large scale, for example seeing the implementation of pension autoenrolment throughout the UK. With the development of “Nudge units” in the UK and the US, there has however also been a number of discussions about the ethical implications of such policies, which some have pointed to reduce freedom of choice or empowerment. Yet very little empirical research has been conducted on the acceptability of nudges. This project therefore aims to build on the current theoretical and empirical literature regarding the acceptability of being nudged, by testing empirically some of the boundary conditions proposed in the philosophical and policy literature, as well as using experimental situations recreating the experience of being nudged, rather than hypothetical scenarios. As a first step of this study, we first attempted to replicate findings from Felsen, Castelo and Reiner (2013), which suggested that people prefer nudges that are overt rather than covert. In other words, they prefer type 2 nudges, which aim to inform and educate to type 2 nudges, which aim to influence the decision directly. However, Felsen et al. suggested that this did not apply to all domains, with people having more negative reactions to nudges aiming to increase productivity. Yet, our own analyses of their open data suggested analytical choices which may have influenced the outcome of the study. We therefore replicated their 2×5 design, with each participant reporting their attitude towards nudges in five different domains (healthy eating, exercising, investing, responsible purchasing, and productivity), after having read about either overt or covert nudges. The results of this replication are discussed, as well as implications for the next steps of the study.


 

Niyat Henok will be presenting at 11:15am

INCUBATION AND INTERACTIVITY IN INSIGHT PROBLEM SOLVING

Abstract:

The origin of insight is commonly explained in terms of the restructuring of a mental representation. The distributed cognition framework, however, assumes a more complex coupling between internal cognitive processes and a physical presentation of the problem in the reasoner’s environment. The present paper investigated how the level of interactivity influenced solution rate in the Cheap Necklace Problem, and focused primarily on the degree to which an incubation effect would be more clearly manifested in a high interactivity environment when unsuccessful participants returned to the problem after a two-week gap. Participants attempted to solve the problem in a low interactivity condition with pen and paper or in a high interactivity condition with a physical model of the problem and were invited to manipulate the constituent elements to solve it. Performance, measured by successful completion of the task, was substantially better in a task environment that fostered a higher degree of interactivity with a physical model of the problem at Time 1. There was evidence of an incubation effect as participants significantly improved in performance after the two-week gap, particularly in the high interactivity condition. Experiment 2 offered a stringier test of the prediction that incubation would be stronger in a high interactivity condition: The problem presentation changed after the two week gap (low interactivity to high interactivity or high interactivity to low interactivity). The increased level of interactivity facilitated discovery at Time 2 among those who had failed to solve the problem at Time 1 in the low interactivity condition. These findings underscore the importance of investigating incubation as a function of the problem solving environment.


Prof. Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau will be presenting at 16:15

TOWARDS A SYSTEMIC UNDERSTANDING OF THINKING AND DECIDING

Abstract:

The Systemic Thinking Model of Cognition (SysTM, Vallée-Tourangeau & Vallée- Tourangeau, 2017) aims to explain how cognition emerges from thinking as well as acting when an agent engages in a cognitive task over a relatively short period of time. A key assumption of SysTM is that cognitive performance is realised through a succession of deductive and inductive processing loops. Deductive loops involve short mental simulations of possible immediate actions before an agent elects to act. Inductive loops involve unplanned actions potentially resulting in serendipitous discoveries or insights and which are driven by the direct perception of affordances or action possibilities in an agent’s immediate environment. Since most psychological studies offer barren affordance landscapes (featuring, at best, very limited possibilities to actively manipulate and tinker with information while thinking), we still know little of the role inductive processing loops may play in higher cognition. In this talk, I will discuss what a systemic study of thinking and deciding may involve, with a particular focus on the role played by environmental affordances in generating new understanding while agents engage in knowledge work

 

For further information about this event please visit website.

DART Poster at CogSci 2017: London

Emma Henderson, PhD student will be presenting her poster at CogSci 207, London, on Friday, July 28th 2017 @ 1:30pm

 

WHEN

Wednesday 26th July – Saturday 29th July, 2017.

WHERE

Hilton London Metropole, 225 Edgware Rd
London

 

PLANNING IN ACTION: INTERACTIVITY IMPROVES PLANNING PERFORMANCE

Abstract:

Planning is an essential cognitive process that is key to achieving productive time management. People often recruit external resources in the planning process, configuring a transient extended cognitive system (TECS) to support their goals. Yet planning activity is frequently studied in the absence of interactivity in laboratory conditions.

Ego-depletion refers to the idea that exerting self-control will temporarily reduce the capacity for subsequent self-control, therefore impairing executive function (Baumeister et al., 1998).

In this experiment, performance in a planning task (adapted from Miotto & Morris, 1998) was examined when participants could exploit a TECS in a high-interactivity condition, and when they could not. In addition, half the participants undertook an ego-depletion task beforehand, and half did not.

We predicted that performance would be better in the high-interactivity condition, as well as an interaction such that ego-depletion would have a greater impact on performance in the low-interactivity condition.

For further information about this event please visit Cog Sci website.

DART at Fondation Mérieux conference 2016 – Strategies to increase vaccine acceptance and uptake.

Prof Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau will be chairing and leading sessions at the Fondation Mérieux Conference Center.

WHEN

Monday, September 26 – Wednesday September 28, 2016

WHERE

Les Pensières Fondation Mérieux Conference Center Veyrier-du-Lac – France

LEVELS OF ENGAGEMENT WITH VACCINATION IMPACTS RISK PERCEPTION AND VACCINATION DECISIONS IN HEALTHCARE WORKERS

Abstract:

In this talk, I will present a new avenue for addressing vaccination hesitancy in healthcare workers (HCWs) by examining whether their motivation towards influenza vaccination predicts risk perception and vaccination decisions. We assessed engagement towards flu vaccination and vaccination advocacy using two scales: the Motivation Towards flu Vaccination (MoVac-flu) and the Motivation Towards Advocacy (MovAd) scales. These scales assess engagement on four dimensions: value, effectiveness, knowledge, and choice. Perceived risks and behaviours associated with influenza and influenza vaccination were also measured. Data were analysed using a Two-Step cluster analysis to identify sentiment clusters in 7 different samples from 6 European countries (Romania, UK, Kosovo, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, and Poland). Results outline different sentiment clusters across countries, which are always highly predictive of differences in risk perception and vaccination behaviours. I will discuss how can we leverage these behavioural insights to increase vaccine acceptance.

For further information about this event please visit Fondation Mérieux website.

DART presents at COGSCI 2016

Prof Gaëlle Vallée-Tourangeau will be presenting at the 38th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society on Thursday 11th August 2016, 11:45

WHEN

Wednesday, August 10 – Saturday August 13, 2016

WHERE

Philadelphia Convention Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,

THE DESCRIPTION-EXPERIENCE GAP IN RISKY CHOICE FRAMING.

COAUTHORS:

FRÉDÉRIC VALLÉE-TOURANGEAU

MADHURI RAMASUBRAMANIAN

The 6 page paper will be published in the proceedings.

For further information about this event please visit COGSCI 2016 website, the conference programme for Thursday 11th can be found here.

DART poster at European Society of Philosophy and Psychology, 2016

Dr Amélie Gourdon,  will be presenting the poster session at European Society of Philosophy and Psychology : August 10 -13th 2016

WHEN

Wednesday 10th August -Saturday 13th, 2016

WHERE

University of St Andrews, Scotland

DIRECTIONALITY OF PROBABILITY PHRASES IS NOT DETERMINED BY THEIR LINGUISTIC HEAD

ABSTRACT

Directionality of probability phrases is not determined by their linguistic head

Verbal probabilities (e.g., it is likely) are suggested to be preferred to numerical probabilities by speakers who express uncertainty (Erev & Cohen, 1990). These phrases are made of a modal adjective (e.g., it is possible) or noun (e.g., there is a possibility), sometimes a verb (e.g., it may be), with, in cases, the addition of a

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DART presents at International Conference on Thinking: August 2016

DART PhD research student Niyat Henok,  will be speaking at International Conference on Thinking on Saturday 6th August 2016.

WHEN

Thursday 4th August -Saturday 6th, 2016

WHERE

Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island

DOES INTERACTIVITY HELP OR INHIBIT TRANSFER? THE ROLE OF TRANSFER AND MATERIAL INTERACTION IN INSIGHT PROBLEM SOLVING.

ABSTRACT

The ‘Aha!’ experience, the sudden burst of insight, has often been explained through an internal cognitive framework. However, external actions may facilitate insight. The role of transfer and material interaction in insight problem-solving was investigated using the Cheap Necklace Problem. In Experiment 1, participants completed the same problem twice after a two-week gap either using Continue reading